Definition of Coordination in Management – In every organization, there must be a number of people who each have their own opinions, views, backgrounds, definitions, and types of work that are different from other people. This diversity needs to be aligned in order to achieve the common goals expected by the organization.
This adjustment is usually known as “Coordination” in management. Coordination in an organization ensures the unity of individual, work group and departmental actions and brings harmony in carrying out various activities and tasks to achieve organizational goals efficiently.
So basically, what is meant by coordination is a process that connects various activities in various departments or individuals in an organization. In the Dictionary, the definition of coordination is “Regarding regulating an organization or activity so that the rules and actions to be implemented do not conflict with each other or confuse each other”.
Coordination maintains the unity of action among individuals and departments. Lack of coordination will result in the suboptimal achievement of goals. In extreme situations, a lack of coordination can result in huge losses for the company or organization.
Also read: Understanding Management and its Four Basic Functions.
Coordination harmonizes and balances conflicting opinions of individuals and departments, enhances group efforts, and directs their movement in a uniform direction that is to achieve organizational goals.
For example, if the production department does not coordinate its activities with the sales department, the number of units produced may be more or less than the number required by the sales department.
Excessive production will result in a buildup of inventory and impede cash flow, while production that is less than sales will result in lost sales revenue and also loss of market share. This of course will harm the company or organization concerned. Therefore, coordination is needed to facilitate the smooth running of a company or organization’s business.
Effective coordination is based on interdependence in organizational activities. The need for coordination is based on a systems approach to management which recognizes that different departments or work units of an organization will have interdependencies between one another (input from one department is the output of another).
This interdependence also occurs in the organization’s internal or external environment. The level of coordination basically depends on the level of interdependence. The more interdependence (both internal and external), the more the need for coordination.
Definition of Coordination according to Experts
The following are some of the definitions and notions of coordination according to several experts.
- Understanding Coordination according to Yohanes Yahya (2006: 95), Coordination is the process of integrating objectives and activities in separate units in an organization to achieve organizational goals efficiently.
- The definition of coordination according to Handoko (2003: 195), coordination ( coordination ) is the process of integrating the objectives and activities of separate units (departments or functional areas) of an organization to achieve organizational goals efficiently.
- Understanding Coordination according to Manullang (2008: 72), Coordination is an effort to direct the activities of all organizational units so that they aim to contribute as much as possible to achieve overall organizational goals. With coordination, there will be a harmony of activities between organizational units in achieving organizational goals.
Types of Coordination
Basically, coordination can be divided into 2 main classifications, which can be classified based on Scope and based on the flow of coordination.
1. Types of Coordination based on Scope
Based on its scope, Coordination can be divided into Internal Coordination and External Coordination.
- Internal coordination is coordination among various work units or departments in an organization by integrating the goals and activities of the work unit or department.
- External Coordination is the coordination between an organization and its external environment consisting of government, communities, customers, investors, suppliers, competitors, research institutions, local communities, and so on.
2. Type of coordination based on the flow
Based on the flow, coordination can be further classified into two types, namely Vertical Coordination and Horizontal Coordination.
- Vertical Coordination is the coordination between various levels of the organization and must ensure that all levels in the organization act in harmony and in accordance with organizational policies. Basically, this vertical coordination is related to the activities of directing and unifying instructions from superiors to subordinates or to work units that are under their responsibility and authority.
- Horizontal coordination is the coordination between various departments or work units at the same level of the management hierarchy. For example, coordination between the production department and the marketing department or coordination between the finance department and the purchasing department.